EPICURUSSamos, approx. 342 - 271 B.C.
He was born in Samos to Athenian clergy parents. A distinguished philosopher, he settled in Athens and founded his own school. He argued that the only principle of things is matter. Outside of it there is nothing but emptiness. According to his materialistic theory, the only absolute good is "pleasure", not momentary, but lasting, and the only absolute evil is "pain". Pain, that is, and joy are the two poles, around which the life of mortals rotates alternately. For this reason spiritual pleasures must be preferred to physical ones. They are more durable and exquisite.