Kos, 460 - 377 B.C.

The most famous doctor of Greek antiquity, called the "father of medicine". He was born on the island of Kos, in 460 BC. He studied at the Asklepiion of Kos, which was also the most important of his time, and was educated at the then flourishing medical school of Knidos. He visited Thassos, Abdera, Kyziko and other parts of Greece, and treated the king of Macedonia, Perdiccas. He met great men, such as the famous philosopher Democritus, the orator Gorgias, Leontius, etc. He collected valuable observations, made serious researches, and returned to Kos, where he devoted himself to the systematic teaching of medicine and wrote there his wonderful works. He died in Larissa, Thessaly, and was buried just outside the city. Since then, the fellow citizens of Kos offered sacrifices on his birthday to honor their great scientist. He left two sons, Thessalos and Drakon, both of whom excelled as doctors. In fact, some of Hippocrates' writings were attributed by later generations to one of his two sons. Their arrangement and publication is not due to them.

When Hippocrates appeared, medicine was a simple art, and until then Magical Medicine treated the sick, while Priestly Medicine treated them inside the temples of Asklepios, the Asklepiia. There the priestesses, who had some medical experience, and knew practical medicines, practiced elementary hygiene and also performed minor surgeries. Also in some circumstances they also used suggestion. The School of Gymnasts, on the other hand, took preventive care of health, sports, diet, and even the aesthetics of the body. There was also a surplus of experienced doctors, but also of philosophical doctors, who, in their studies of nature, included the human organism.

Hippocrates, after studying all previous experience without being satisfied in his scientific zeal and researches, carved out with his genius a new way of studying diseases. He carefully studied the human organism, especially the diseased, and comparatively investigated nature, observed it, imitated it, experimented upon it, and used it as a wise guide, a supreme physician, and an insurmountable teacher. And, thus, he made the medical art a single and strictly pure science. Great figures of his time, such as Plato and Aristotle, admired him.

To this day in medicine, especially in diagnostics, some of the methods of this great scientist are followed. He wrote most of the theoretical works on various diseases and organic anomalies. Many of these were later sold to the Ptolemies, but were lost following the fate of all intellectual products of Greek antiquity.