CARNEADESCyrene, approx. 215 -121 B.C.
Copy and paste the following code:
Greek philosopher. He was born in Cyrene in Africa in 214 BC and died in 129 BC. He is considered to be the founder of the new or third Academy, since both Lacydis of Cyrene, its leader who succeeded the great Arkesilaos (316 - 241 BC), as well as the later successors Telekleus, Evandros and Hegisinos left the school to fall into obscurity. Carneades, according to the surviving testimonies, became schoolmaster before 156 and retained the direction of the Academy until the year 137 BC.
With his teaching and his other philosophical and social activity he led the new Academy to great prosperity. He himself wrote nothing. His successor students and especially the scholarch after Carneades Kleitomachos (187 - 109 BC) saved in their writings his teaching, which is the pinnacle of academic thought. In 155 BC he took part in the mission of Rome, following a decision of the Athenians, together with the stoic Diogenes and the itinerant Critolaus, in order to settle a financial penalty imposed by the Romans on the Athenians for the destruction of the city of Oropos. Thus, contemplative philosophy is transplanted to Rome.
Lactantius reports that Carneades' first lecture before the Roman youth was a eulogy for justice and caused a storm of enthusiasm. But while on the first day he explained the necessity of justice, in the following days he demonstrated how incompatible justice is with the prevailing order of things and the demands of practical life. At bottom, Carneades was presenting to his Roman listeners the core of his philosophy: Carneades was not only questioning all cognitive certainty, including mathematical knowledge, but also rejecting Stoic Ethics itself. Karneadis tried to cut off the roots of their dogmatism.
Karneadis taught that criteria of truth do not exist, he investigated the problem of the possibility of knowledge systematically and subjected to a detailed criticism the views of previous philosophers, especially Chrysippus. Carneades shows the incompatibility of Stoic fatalism with freedom of the will and turns against astrology and divination.
- BEAUTY IS A KINGDOM WITHOUT SUBJECTS