ARCHIMEDESSyracuse, 287 - 212 B.C.
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Great sage of antiquity, mathematical physicist and engineer. He was born in Syracuse. He was a relative or very close friend of the tyrant of Syracuse Hiero, to whose son he dedicated his most important work "Psammitis". He loved his country with devotion and despised all the advantages that the prosperous Alexandria of the Ptolemies offered him. During the famous siege of Syracuse by Roman Marcellus, he puts his scientific genius at the service of his country. With wonderful inventions he repels the army and fleet of the besieger, causing it great losses. His inventions were many.
Lucian during the 2nd century AD states that Archimedes, among other things, set fire to the Roman fleet by concentrating the sun's rays on it with hollow mirrors. Finally he sacrifices his life in favor of Syracuse. He was brutally killed by a soldier while he was scrambling to find new machinery, at which time he is said to have said to the hoplite who invaded the place where the immortal was working "Don't disturb my circles".
His tomb is preserved to this day in Syracuse. Archimedes himself mentions that he was taught astronomy by his father Pheidias. He showed utmost skill in the construction of astronomical instruments. He wrote many works characterized by originality and depth of thought. It was rightly said later, that he who understands Archimedes admires less the inventions of the younger sages.
- On the mechanical theorems
- On sphere and cylinder
- Plane equilibriums
- GIVE ME A PLACE TO STAND AND I WILL MOVE THE EARTH
- EUREKA! EUREKA!